TYPES OF GOVERNMENTS
are many types of government. Some people simplify them
into Four types, but there are others who break these categories
down into more complex definitions.
A system of government where there are no constitutional
limits imposed on the rulers
: A rejection of imposed governments and the
view that society should be ordered through freely co-operating
Rule by command with little or no attention to public
opinion, individual rights or public consent
Government through a single leader who uses power
in an arbitrary way rather than through reference to a system
In a capitalist or free-market country, people
can own their own businesses and property. People
can also buy services for private use, such as healthcare.
But most capitalist governments also provide their own education,
health and welfare services.
A doctrine which advocates common ownership of all
. It provides its people's healthcare,
education and welfare.
A form of government where the people exercise political
. Everyone who is eligible to vote
has a chance to have their say over who runs the country.
A form of political rule by one person who governs
unrestricted by legal, constitutional or conventional constraints
In a military dictatorship, the army is in control.
government: In this type of system, a central
government shares power with a number of small local governments.
The USA is a type of this, called a federal
A monarchy has a king or queen. In some traditional
monarchies, the monarch has absolute power. But a constitutional
monarchy, like the UK, also has a democratic government
that limits the monarch's control.
A form of government which consists of rule by a small
and unrepresentative elite group who rule in their own interests,
especially the accumulation of wealth and privilege.
A system where the rich rule and the poor have no
share in government
A system which is based upon direct communications
with the people
or local: This is a government or council
that controls a smaller area within a country. Some
local governments have very limited powers and are mainly
controlled by the central government. Others are powerful
enough to make their own laws, like individual states in
A republic is a system where the head of state is
not selected on a hereditary basis.
head of the country is usually an elected president.
government: If a government is overthrown
by force, the new ruling group is sometimes called a revolutionary
A system where the community has some control over
the means of production
A form of government where the rulers claim to be
ruling on behalf of a set of religious ideas, or as direct
agents of a deity.
Often linked with modern nation
states where the emphasis is on technologically advanced
instruments of mass communications. This allows the
people to be organised, mobilised and controlled.
A country that is changing from one type of government
to another has a transitional government. For
example, a dictatorship may turn into a democracy after
the dictator dies. The change between governments can take
HOW GOVERNMENT FUNCTIONS
Constitution sets out the way that a country is
governed. It usually recognises three different
bodies that perform different roles.
Legislature makes the laws. It
is made up of one (unicameral) or two (bicameral)
Executive administers the laws.
It is made up of public servants organised into
departments and run by ministers.
Judiciary interprets the laws.
It is made up of judges and the law courts.
executive arm of government is headed by the Prime Minister,
Chief Minister or Premier, the leader of the elected party
with the majority of seats in the House of Parliament.
The Head of Government chairs Cabinet, which is comprised
of ministers responsible for various departments.
Executive Arm makes all decisions about government policy
and set priorities for programs and services.
about policies and programs take into account many factors,
the wishes of the people and financial resources being the
two most important ones.
Legislature has three roles: legislative, financial and
inquiry. Its most common role is to debate the principles
of proposed legislation and to ensure that each Bill serves
ideas for Bills can originate from many sources - the minister
responsible for a department, Cabinet, or members of the
public - Cabinet must give permission for an idea to be
developed into a Bill.
The Judicial arm consists of the Chief Justice and Judges
who preside over the Courts. These components are linked
through the Crown, who is Head of State.
are three roles for the judicial arm of Government:
Review the constitutionality of government action and legislation.
Interpret legislation and resulting action.
Adjudicate other disputes not necessarily involving Government
action or legislation.